in Space

Gravitational Lensing


Eliptical Galaxies

Unique Forms of Continuity by the futurist sculptor Umberto Boccioni (1913).

Contact Info
Navigating the Site Credits Links

From Spacetime you can also connect to the Higher Dimensions theme

Penrose Diagram

Animation based on the sculpture Spacetime by John Robinson. It was produced with the assistance of the sculptor by Nick Mee.

In his sculpture, shown above, 'Unique Forms of Continuity' (1913), the futurist sculptor Umberto Boccioni attempted to illustrate the interaction of a moving object with the space that surrounded which, he believed, “is achieved through the intuitive search for the one single form which produces continuity in space”. He coined the term Plastic dynamism, describing it as “the simultaneous action of the motion characteristic of an object (its absolute motion), mixed with the transformation which the object undergoes in relation to its mobile and immobile environment (its relative motion).”

Instead of the concept of a sharp differentiation of bodies, Boccioni substituted a “concept of dynamic continuity as the only form… since dynamic form is a species of fourth dimension, both in painting and sculpture, which cannot exist perfectly without the complete concurrence of those three dimensions which determine volume: height, width, depth.”

Text by Richard Bright.